FLAT World

In 2004, the “Big Three” questions, created by GFLEC Director Annamaria Lusardi and Prof. Olivia Mitchell of the Wharton School, were first fielded in the U.S. Health and Retirement Study. Since then, the exact questions and various variations have been used to measure financial literacy around the world. This page features the findings in 15 countries that have participated in the Financial Literacy Around the World (FLAT World) project. This research has been published in special issues of the Journal of Pension Economics and Finance as well as in Numeracy. Some are working papers.

Here you can download the findings from 15 countries.

The Journal of Pension Economics and Finance has made the articles publicly available.


United States (2011)

Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in the United States

Annamaria Lusardi and Olivia Mitchell


The Netherlands (2011)

Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in the Netherlands

Rob Alessie, Maarten Van Rooij, Annamaria Lusardi


Italy (2011)

Financial Literacy and Pension Plan Participation in Italy

Elsa Fornero, Chiara Monticone


Germany (2011)

Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in Germany

Tabea Bucher-Koenen, Annamaria Lusardi


Sweden (2011)

Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in Sweden

Johan Almenberg, Jenny Säve-Söderbergh


Russia (2011)

Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in the Russia case

Leora Klapper and Georgios A. Panos


New Zealand (2011)

Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in New Zealand

Diana Crossan, David Feslier, Roger Hurnard


Japan (2011)

Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in Japan

Shizuka Sekita


The 8 papers above were published in a special issue of the Journal of Pension Economics and Finance

 



Switzerland (2013)

Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in Switzerland

Martin Brown, Roman Graf


Australia (2013)

Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in Australia

Julie R. Agnew, Hazel Bateman, Susan Thorp


France (2013)

Financial Literacy and Financial Planning in France

Luc Arroundel, Majdi Debbich, Frederique Savignac


Romania (2013)

Financial Literacy and Household Savings in Romania

Elisabeth Beckman


The 4 papers above were published in a special issue of Numeracy

 



Chile (2016)

Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in Chile

Natalia Garabato Moure
Journal of Pension Economics and Finance


Canada (2015)

Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in Canada

David Boisclair, Annamaria Lusardi, and Pierre-Carl Michaud
Journal of Pension Economics and Finance


Finland (2015)

Financial Literacy and Retirement Planning in Finland

Panu Kalmi and Olli-Pekka Ruuskanen